• Category: Network
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Physical Layer (Layer 1)

The lowest layer of the OSI Reference Model is layer 1, the physical layer; it is commonly abbreviated “PHY”. The physical layer is special compared to the other layers of the model, because it is the only one where data is physically moved across the network interface.

  • Category: Network
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7 Layers of the OSI Model


OSI short for Open System Interconnection, an ISO standard for worldwide communications that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. ISO shorts for International Organization for Standardization.

  • Category: Network
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Subnet Examples

In the following examples, determine if the address/subnet pair is legal. If it is legal, determine the network number and the range of host addresses for that network. Also determine for the mask, the number of available networks and available hosts per network.

  • Category: Network
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IP Address Format


An IP address is a 32-bit number that can be represented in many formats. Routers and computers are designed to operate efficiently on binary numbers, so a binary representation is a natural way for them to store and manipulate IP addresses.

  • Category: Network
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How IPV-6 Is Going To Change the Net


IPng short for Internet Protocol next generation, a new version of the Internet Protocol (IP) currently being reviewed in IETF standards committees. The official name of IPng is IPv6, where the v6 stands for version 6. The current version of IP is version 4, so it is sometimes referred to as IPv4.